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基于物理模型的汽车空气动力学研究综述

刘锦生 徐胜金 王庆洋 鲍欢欢 王勇

刘锦生, 徐胜金, 王庆洋, 等. 基于物理模型的汽车空气动力学研究综述[J]. 实验流体力学, 2020, 34(1): 38-48. doi: 10.11729/syltlx20190081
引用本文: 刘锦生, 徐胜金, 王庆洋, 等. 基于物理模型的汽车空气动力学研究综述[J]. 实验流体力学, 2020, 34(1): 38-48. doi: 10.11729/syltlx20190081
LIU Jinsheng, XU Shengjin, WANG Qingyang, et al. Review of automotive aerodynamics research based on physical models[J]. Journal of Experiments in Fluid Mechanics, 2020, 34(1): 38-48. doi: 10.11729/syltlx20190081
Citation: LIU Jinsheng, XU Shengjin, WANG Qingyang, et al. Review of automotive aerodynamics research based on physical models[J]. Journal of Experiments in Fluid Mechanics, 2020, 34(1): 38-48. doi: 10.11729/syltlx20190081

基于物理模型的汽车空气动力学研究综述

doi: 10.11729/syltlx20190081
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金 11772173

中国汽研科研发展基金 MS-03-03

详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘锦生(1990-), 男, 福建龙岩人, 博士研究生。研究方向:汽车空气动力学、实验流体力学。通信地址:北京市海淀区清华大学航天航空学院(100084)。E-mail:ljs16@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    徐胜金, E-mail:xu_shengjin@tsinghua.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: U461.1

Review of automotive aerodynamics research based on physical models

  • 摘要: 汽车空气动力学涉及到绕流湍流、流动稳定性、流动分离与控制、流固耦合及噪声等复杂且基础的流体力学问题。本文梳理了国内外学者基于汽车物理模型的空气动力学研究进展,介绍了前人在气动力、流场研究、流动控制、计算和实验的对标、多车空气动力学、污染、风噪等方面取得的研究成果,分析了研究存在的不足,并对未来汽车空气动力学研究方向进行了探讨和展望。
  • 图  1  车身周围的流动

    Figure  1.  Flow around a car

    图  2  Ahmed、MIRA和DrivAer模型的侧轮廓图

    Figure  2.  Ahmed, MIRA and DrivAer models

    图  3  Ahmed模型周围的流动结构[18]Re =(0.45~2.40)×105

    Figure  3.  A conceptual model of the flow structure around the Ahmed model[18], Re =(0.45~2.40)×105

    图  4  Ahmed模型风阻系数随后背角度的变化关系[1]

    Figure  4.  Drag coefficient of an Ahmed model with different base slant angles[1]

    图  5  Ahmed模型不同后背角的尾部流动结构示意图[1]

    Figure  5.  Flow structures behind an Ahmed model with different base slant angles[1]

    图  6  MIRA模型不同后背的相干结构[19]及风阻系数[20]

    Figure  6.  Flow structures and the drag coefficients of a MIRA model with different backs[19-20]

    图  7  MIRA快背式模型周围的涡结构[21-22]

    Figure  7.  Schematic of flow structure of fastback model[21-22]

    图  8  DrivAer模型Fastback尾部的相干结构[23]及不同后背的风阻系数[24]

    Figure  8.  Flow structures of the DrivAer fastback model and the drag coefficient of a DrivAer model with different backs[23-24]

    图  9  Ahmed模型尾部不同位置处速度信号的功率谱特征[18]

    Figure  9.  The power spectral density function Eu of the hot-wire signal measured at center line in the wake[18]

    图  10  DrivAer模型仿真流场的POD分析[27]

    Figure  10.  POD analysis of flow around a DrivAer model [27]

    图  11  扰流板对Ahmed模型两侧流向涡的控制[28]

    Figure  11.  The flap controls the flow separation over the rear slant [28]

    图  12  阻力系数随绕流板倾斜角度的变化[28]

    Figure  12.  Evolution of the drag of the bluff body as a function of the angle of the flap relative to the slant surface[28]

    图  13  Ahmed模型尾部进行主动射流控制[34]

    Figure  13.  Conceptual model of the flow structure under the combined actuation[34]

    图  14  采用不同湍流模型计算Ahmed模型的绕流流场[37]

    Figure  14.  Simulation of flow around the Ahmed model using different turbulence models[37]

    图  15  采用LES方法仿真分析Ahmed模型气动特征[38]

    Figure  15.  Simulation and analysis of aerodynamic characteristics of Ahmed model by LES method and the plane used to visualize the flow[38]

    图  16  后视镜对车窗表面压力系数分布的影响[23]

    Figure  16.  Effect of rearview mirror on distribution of the pressure coefficient at the side window[23]

    图  17  车轮转动状态对轮仓内表面压力的影响[24]

    Figure  17.  Pressure distribution inside the front wheel housing [24]

    图  18  阻塞比AM/AN对DrivAer模型气动力测试的影响[43]

    Figure  18.  Effect of jet expansion on the drag coefficient ΔCD for different blockage ratios AM/AN [43]

    图  19  基于DrivAer模型模拟轿车超越卡车过程中两车周围流场的变化[51]

    Figure  19.  Instantaneous velocity field when a car overtaking truck based on DrivAer model[51]

    图  20  不同车轮构型和转动状态下的70 dB等噪声面分布[52]

    Figure  20.  Acoustic power sound sources at 70 dB with wheel configurations and rotation states[52]

    图  21  冷却器泄漏对冷却器周围流场和底盘高压力系数分布的影响[25]:A.进气格栅封闭, B.进气格栅开启(冷却器无泄漏), C.进气格栅开启(冷却器泄漏)

    Figure  21.  Velocity magnitude in the center plane and pressure coefficient distribution of the three simulated setups[25]

    表  1  汽车空气动力学物理模型列表

    Table  1.   List of automotive aerodynamic physical models

    模型名称 设计机构 设计时间
    Ahmed[1] 德国宇航中心 1984
    SAE[2] 意大利Pininfarina风洞 1999
    NRSCC/SAE[3] 加拿大国家研究委员会 1996
    Rover[4] 英国路虎汽车公司 1997
    Davis[5] 英国帝国理工学院 1984
    DOCTON[6] 英国杜伦大学 1998
    Ford Block[7] 美国福特汽车公司 1999
    GM[8] 美国通用汽车公司 2001
    ASMO[9] 德国Daimler汽车公司 2000
    RMIIT[10] 澳大利亚RMIT大学 2001
    Chrysler[11] 美国Chrysler风洞 1994
    MIRA[12] 英国MIRA风洞 1986
    FORD[13] 美国福特汽车公司 1994
    MIRA / ROVER[14] 英国MIRA & 路虎汽车 1994
    CNR[15] 意大利Pininfarina风洞 1982
    SAE/ PININFARINA[16] 意大利Pininfarina风洞 1998
    DrivAer[17] 慕尼黑工业大学 2011
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2019-06-25
  • 修回日期:  2019-08-04
  • 刊出日期:  2020-02-25

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